A blood clot that has formed inside the blood vessels, which is called a thrombus, is made up of a cross-linked fibrin mesh, and when this cross-linked fibrin mesh breaks, two types of products are formed in it, one of which is FDP i.e. fibrin degradation product and other is a protein called d-dimer.
Normally this protein is cleared from the blood on its own, but in some circumstances, it starts increasing, which is detected by a blood test.
D Dimer is a type of blood test that is done to check a specific type of protein in human blood.
Normally this protein is found in negligible or very small amounts in human blood.
Why does d-dimer protein increase in human blood?
Normally blood clots are not present in human blood, but if due to any reason blood clots start forming in human blood and those clots start dissolving later,
so due to this dissolving blood clot causes d dimer protein to increase in human blood. which can be easily detected by a blood test.
In which diseases does d-dimer increase in human blood?
There are many types of diseases in the human body, due to which blood clots start forming in the human blood and they start breaking.
Due to which this protein starts increasing, these diseases can be from normal to dangerous such as…
- Heart attack
- Brain stroke or paralysis
- D-I-C (Disseminated intravascular coagulation)
- DVT(Deep Vein Thrombosis) Blood clotting disease in blood vessels
- Pulmonary Embolism
In the infection of covid 19 etc.
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What other things should be kept in mind after the D-dimer test becomes positive?
In this investigation, special care has to be taken of some things, such as in many circumstances, the d dimer test report becomes positive or may become false positive such as…
- In pregnancy
- Patients older than 80 years
- In liver diseases
- Certain types of cancer
- In many types of acute infections
- Due to increased lipids (Dyslipidemia)
- In Chronic heart diseases
- Due to major physical injuries
- After any type of operation etc.
The point to be noted in this investigation is that a mere d dimer test cannot diagnose any disease correctly.
To detect any disease properly, along with this test, other tests have to be done, only then the doctor confirm the diagnosis.
What other tests have to be done after the D-dimer test is positive?
After this test is positive based on the patient’s symptoms, only your doctor can decide what other tests do you need to get done.
For example, if you are positive for D dimer, some of the tests done by your doctor to diagnose any disease are as follows:
- CT Scan
- Pulmonary angiography
- CT ANGIOGRAPHY of the affected part
- Fibrinogen test
- Prothrombin time
- Clotting time
- Ventilation perfusion
- Platelet count etc.
Normally D dimer test is negative in a healthy person, from which it is confirmed that the person does not have any blood clot disease.
How is the D Dimer test done?
This is a very common type of blood test.
For this, a blood sample is taken from the vein of the patient’s hand or arm and this test is completed in a very short time.
The patient feels slight pain while the needle is inserted. Apart from this, there is no problem in getting this investigation done.
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What is the normal value of the D dimer test?
The reports of this test are measured in different units by different laboratories, generally, the value of this test is as follows…
- The range of 100 to 250 ng per ml is normal.
- A value of 500 ng/ml or more is considered high.
If the value of D dimer in a person’s blood test is more than 500 ng/ml, then it may be in such a situation that the person may have any coagulation disorders or the problem of blood clot formation has started in that person’s blood vessels due to any reason.
To diagnose this, the doctor can estimate the right condition by doing other tests along with examining the symptoms of that patient.
Why is the D dimer test done in the infection of Covid-19?
In many types of research, it has been found that the infection of Covid-19 causes swelling in the lungs of the infected person, and due to many other reasons, blood clots start forming in his blood vessels.
To diagnose this situation rightly this test is done.
This is because these blood clots get stuck anywhere in the blood vessels, due to which the condition of the patient becomes very serious and sometimes the patient also dies.
On the basis of which symptoms the D dimer test is done?
It is determined by the doctor, generally, some special symptoms in which this test is required are as follows:
- Difficulty in breathing
- Persistent cough
- Swelling in legs
- Chest pain
- Rapid heartbeat
Severe pain in the legs etc.
What is the treatment to reduce the d-dimer?
It depends on the root cause due to which the value of d dimer is increased.
First of all, the disease has to be properly diagnosed, after that many types of medicines are used by the doctor, especially blood thinners to prevent the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels.
Some examples of this are as follows…
This injection is most commonly used by doctors to treat blood coagulation diseases and to reduce the increased d-dimer.
This is injected subcutaneously, in the same way as insulin is injected in a patient with diabetes.
Its dose and quantity can be determined by the doctor only.
Apart from this, certain types of medicines like…
- Rivaroxaban 10 mg
- Aspirin 75/150 mg
- Low Molecular Weight Heparin 40mg SC
etc. are also used by doctors in these types of conditions.
Blood clot formation in the blood vessels is a very serious problem, due to which the person can suffer from serious health problems like paralysis or heart attack or death etc.
Therefore, the D dimer test is of great importance to predict blood clotting diseases accurately.
But you should always keep in mind that this test is not a specific test to diagnose any disease but a type of additional test,
with the help of this test, the doctor gets a lot of help in diagnosing any serious disease rightly,
That’s why this test has a lot of importance in the field of medicine, you should get this test done as per your doctor’s advice.
The content of this article is not intended as an alternative to professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.
Always seek medical advice for any questions regarding the medical condition.
Do not attempt to treat yourself, your child, or anyone else without proper medical supervision.
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Author (what is d dimer test for)… Dr V.K. Goyal BAMS MD (AM)
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